Heat 1 teaspoon of oil in a large saucepan over medium-high heat until shimmering. Add the corn and cook until it begins to brown, about 5 minutes. Transfer to a bowl and set aside.
Add the remaining teaspoon oil, onion, and 1/4 teaspoon salt to the saucepan. Cover and cook over medium-low heat, stirring occasionally, until the onion is softened, 8 to 10 minutes.
Stir in the quinoa. Increase the heat to medium and cook, stirring often, until the quinoa is lightly toasted and aromatic, about 5 minutes. Stir in the broth and jalapeños and bring to a simmer. Reduce the heat to low, cover, and continue to simmer until the quinoa is transparent and tender, 16 to 18 minutes.
Remove the pot from the heat and lay a clean folded kitchen towel underneath the lid. Let sit for 10 minutes, then fluff the quinoa with a fork. Stir in the cooked corn, tomato, cilantro, and lime juice. Season with salt and pepper to taste and serve.